Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disease of autosomal recessive inheritance which presents in childhood or early adulthood with. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 1 (NBIA1), also called Hallervorden–Spatz syndrome, is a degenerative disease of the. Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome was first described in by Drs. Julius Hallervorden and Hugo Spatz with their study of a family of 12 in which five sisters.

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Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome: a rare cause of extrapyramidal manifestations

Neuroacanthocytosis is a general term for a group of rare progressive disorders characterized by the association of misshapen, spiny red blood cells acanthocytosis and neurological abnormalities, especially movement disorders. Speech disturbances like palilalia, dysarthria have been described in HSS.

Hallervorden’s enthusiastic encouragement of the killings and the other aspects that led to dehumanization of both the victims and the participants was detailed by Shevell The average age for developing symptoms is 13 years.

Symptoms include hallrrvorden, sustained muscle contractions causing repetitive movementsdysarthria abnormal speechmuscular rigidity, poor balance, and spasticity sudden involuntary muscle spasmsThese features can result in clumsiness, gait walking problems, difficulty controlling movement, and speech problems. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

She was asymptomatic until age 17 when she developed dysarthria and right hand tremor. Later in disease course common complications include dysphagia, gastro-oesophageal reflux, chronic constipation, aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. This molecule helps your body convert fats, some amino acids, and carbohydrates into energy. First scientific workshop on Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome: Many of the delays in development pertain to motor skills movementalthough a small subgroup may have intellectual delays.

Synonyms or Alternate Spellings: This has been postulated to result in underutilization and accumulation of cysteine in basal ganglia which, when in excess causes chelation of iron leading to free toxic radicals production. The disorder is caused by a mutant PANK2 gene located at the chromosomal locus: Muller-Hill reviewed much of this information in his ‘Murderous Science. There is a subgroup of patients with moderate to severe intellectual disability. Fucosidosis is a rare genetic disorder characterized by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-L-fucosidase, which is required to break down metabolize certain complex compounds e.


Other nervous system and systemic examination was unremarkable. Homozygosity mapping of Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome to chromosome 20p At autopsy, he had generalized brain atrophy with large deposits of iron pigment in the globus pallidus, caudate and substantia nigra.

Generalized dystonia with predominance of oromandibular involvement, behavioral changes followed by dementia, and retinal degeneration were present in all the patients. The NCLs are characterized by abnormal accumulation of certain fatty, granular substances i. Lab data were negative for Wilson serology. Thank you for updating your details. Abstract Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disease of hqllervorden recessive inheritance which presents in childhood or early adulthood with dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity and choreoathetosis.

Parkinson disease is a slowly progressive neurologic condition characterized by involuntary trembling tremormuscular stiffness or inflexibility rigidityslowness of movement and difficulty carrying out voluntary movements. Seizures — Have been described.

Julius Hallervordenwhose name, with that of Hugo Spatz, is linked to this disorder, made important contributions to neurologic ballervorden Richardson, Physical examination Physical examination reveals signs consistent with extrapyramidal and corticospinal dysfunction.

Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging correlations. The association between pantothenate kinase and PKAN suggests that supplemental pantothenate pantothenic acid, calcium pantothenate taken orally could be beneficial. Health care resources for this disease Expert centres Diagnostic tests 51 Patient organisations 54 Orphan drug s 3. Optic atrophy as the presenting sign in Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome. Treat excessive drooling with a medication such as methscopolamine bromide.

Psychiatric symptoms are more commonly observed and spaz impulsive behavior, violent outbursts, depression, or a tendency to rapid mood swings.

Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome: a rare cause of extrapyramidal manifestations

However, medical advances have increased life expectancy. Both beet and cane sugar are found in many foods, including sweets and sodas. Anesthetic management for two-stage computer-assisted, stereotactic thalamotomy in a child with Hallervorden-Spatz disease.


Pathological findings in brain include rust brown pigmentation due to iron deposition, axonal swellings or spheroids and neuronal loss with gliosis predominantly in the globus pallidus and pars reticularis of the substantia nigra.

Active opponents were many and included such prominent physicians as Creutzfeldt, another neuropathologist for whom Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is named. The treatment of patients with HSD remains directed toward symptomatic halllervorden. While portions of the globus pallidus and pars reticulata of the substantia nigra SN have high iron content in healthy individuals, individuals with HSD have excess amounts of iron deposited in these areas.

The parents, nonconsanguineous, died accidentally at age Pantethine a precursor of pantetheine has been studied and shown to be effective in a mouse and in a fruit fly model of the disease. This is known as dystonia. Parents who are close relatives consanguineous have a higher chance than unrelated parents to both carry the same abnormal gene, which increases the risk to have children with a recessive genetic disorder.

Mental deterioration, emaciation, severe feeding difficulties, and visual impairment occur hallervoden as late manifestations. Eigenartige Erkrankung im extrapyramidalen System mit besonderer Beteiligung des Globus pallidus und der Substantia synndrome Genetic Heterogeneity of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation is an umbrella term that encompasses a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders.

Muscle spasms combined with decreased bone mass can result in bone fractures not caused by trauma or accident. Symptoms of the following disorders can be similar to those of PKAN. Both Hugo Spatz and Julius Hallervorden were involved in the Nazi euthanasia program and, as such, the alternative name is preferred by some authors. HSD can be fatal. Retrieved November 7, In affected members from 4 Dutch families with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Rump et al.